Supplemental Foods for Babies - How to start Solid Foods for Babies

Supplemental foods are important for the growth of the child. One can start the supplemental foods from sixth month onwards. This article is about how to start your little one with solids. Solid foods contain the essential nutrients which are present in minor quantities in breast milk. Supplemental foods for babies can be divided into two types. They are as follows:
1. Liquid Supplements and
2. Solid Supplements

Liquid Supplements


During the sixth month of life the frequency of breast feeding is reduced to 3 or 4 times per day and animal milk is substituted. The contituents of nutrients in animal milk differs from that of human milk so it is important that the cow's milk is diluted with boiled and cooled water in the proportion of 2:1 for the first feeds. We can gradually reduce the amount of water so that in the course of few weeks the baby receives undiluted animal milk. 225ml of milk per feed is an ideal replacement for babies. Sugar is optional and can be added for taste and to increase calories.

Fresh fruit Juice
Oranges, papaya, tomatoes, sweet lime, apple, grapes can be used as a supplement. These fruits have all the essential nutrients absent or not present in sufficient amounts in breast milk as well as in animal milk. Small quantities of fresh fruit juice can be given as small feeds in the 3rd or 4th month of life.
At the first feed, the fruit juice is diluted with an equal amount of boiled water and only about 10ml are fed. The quantity of fruit juice fed is gradually increased and at the same time the dilution with water is decreased. 85ml of orange juice or about 170ml fresh tomato juice is served in a week. The quantity of tomato juice is doubled since it does not contain the same proportion of nutrients as orange juice.

Green leafy vegetable soup

Green leafy vegetables may be used as an alternative for fresh fruits. Strained soup can be given first and unstrained soup later on.

Fish liver oil

Fish liver oils are good source of vitamin A and D. A few drops of fish liver oil mixed in small quantity of milk can be given to infants.

Solid Supplements (Mashed)

Solid supplements are started around 7th or 8th month of life. The infant is ready during this period because it is already receiving animal milk, fruit juice or vegetable soup and fish liver oil.

Cereal and starchy gruels

Well cooked mashed cereals mixed with milk and sugar can be given to meet the increasing demands of calories and protein. Malted wheat and ragi are best Calorie dense cereals.


Potato, green leafy vegetables and carrots can be cooked and mashed and introduced to get vitamins and minerals in the diet.


All fruits must be stewed and sieved for one year old baby. Banana is an exception and it must be mashed. After the first year the fruits can be simply stewed, with the addition of little sugar and lime juice for flavour.


Pulse and meat preparations can be given on alternate days.

Non-vegetarian foods

Hard boiled egg yolk is given in small amounts to start with non-vegetarian and if the infant tolerates, the amount may be gradually increased to a complete yolk of an egg. Egg yolk serves as a good source of vitamin A, iron and protein. Egg white is not given until the infant is 8 to 10 months old, because of the frequency of allergic reaction. The whole egg can be given to the baby at the age of one year. It may be soft boiled or poached.
Minced and cooked meat or boiled fish may be fed 3 to 4 times a week after adding salt.

Solid Supplements (Unmashed)

Best time to start chopped and lumpy foods is when the baby starts cutting his teeth. Cooked cereals, pulses and vegetables, solids like idli, idiappam, bread, chappathi, rice and dal can be given after the baby gets used to semi-solids.
Vegetables may be nicely chopped into small pieces, and boiled. Cooked and mashed potato can be given. Leafy vegetables can be given well boiled and soft after a year. A slice of raw carrot can be given daily to avoid any eye problems. Fruits with all skin and seeds removed is a good exercise for the gums. As the child grows, give lots of fruits since it provedes bulk in the diet and is good for bowel movement.

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Anorexia nervosa: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment - Eating disorder

What is anorexia nervosa?

A psychological disorder characterised by self-starvation , very often excessive exercise, and weight loss. Anorexia nervosa is subcategorised into 2 types:
1. Restrictive (starvation)
2. Purging (including bingeing and purging or excessive exercise).
Though it has psychological origins, it also obviously affects physical wellbeing.
The condition usually begins with a desire to diet and lose weight. It may be triggered by an event affecting the person mentally such as the end of a relationship or the death of some loved ones. Almost 60% of patients suffering from anorexia nervosa have been sexually abused. Anorexic person dislike food and are terrified by the thought of that they may gain weight. They eventually do not eat enough to maintain a healthy body weight. Anorexic persons think themselves to be overweight. In reality they are thin or underweight.

Anorexic people may behave differently, they refuse to eat in front of other people. Some may be greatly interested in the preparing and cooking of food but not in eating. They may also avoid entire food groups, especially those considered high in fat or carbohydrates. Anorexic people engage themselves in excessive exercise patterns to reduce weight. They use appetite suppressants to curb appetite.

People with anorexia nervosa will usually not accept that there is something wrong with their eating pattern. Anorexia is an addictive state. It acts just as alcohol and drugs do in the chemical addict, and once they start dieting and losing weight, it is very difficult for them to stop. The disorder may lead to various medical complications. It is potentially very dangerous and if not treated appropriately, it may result in death of the individual.

Causes for Anorexia nervosa

The factors that lead to the disorder are complex and not clearly understood.

1. Psychological, social, biological, cultural and familial factors all play a role in the development of the disorder.
2. It has recently been found that it has also got a genetic or organic basis.
3. Young women want them to be as models who are always slim and often waif-like.
4. Anorexia nervosa starts when a young person is going through a difficult life stage.
5. High risk age for developing the disorder is 16-24 years.
6. Anorexics often have a poor self-image and believe they don’t deserve love and is coupled with a pressure to be thin and attractive.

Symptoms for Anorexia nervosa

The following symptoms are present in confirmed cases of anorexia nervosa:

• Do not maintain ideal body weight for their age and height
• Fear of gaining weight or becoming obese, even though underweight
• A distorted body image
• Irregular menstrual cycles
• Vomiting
• Use of appetite suppressants
• Strict rules about eating
• Obsessive compulsive disorder
• Excessive exercise
• Lack of sexual desire
• Feel tired of day-to-day functioning
• Wearing bulky and concealing clothing to hide their thin personality

Anorexia can have a serious impact on the individual’s life. Starvation can lead to depression. The individual always feels tired, suffer from decreased attention and concentration and may lose interest in their daily activities.
Medical complications related to starvation may include:
• Low heart rate
• Dry skin
• Excessive energy
• Cold intolerance
• Low blood pressure
• Gastrointestinal problems such as constipation and abdominal pain
• Hormonal disturbances
• Swelling of joints
• Brittleness of hair and nails
• Irregular heart rate
• Impaired kidney functioning
• Anaemia
• Severely low blood pressure
• Erosion of dental enamel because of repeated vomiting
• Brittleness of bones (osteoporosis)

Treatment for Anorexia nervosa

The primary aim of the treatment of anorexia is to restore weightloss in the affected individual in a caring, humane manner. Treatment varies between person to person depending on the stage of the illness and the person’s willingness to participate. Hospitalization may be required if the person as lost more than 25% of her body weight. Individual psychotherapy is advised.

Tips to overcome Tiredness - How to Stop feeling Tired

What is Tiredness?

Tiredness can be explained as a temporary loss of strength and energy which affects a person both physically and mentally.
Tiredness is encountered by everyone in their daily life. Sometimes you feel tired even when you don’t do any work. It even becomes worse if we were not able to move around freely due to tiredness. Sometimes we even feel not to talk to others as this may make us tired. It seems as if we are drained out of our energy and don’t have an ounce of it to be able to move around and do our normal work.

How to overcome Tiredness?

If these symptoms are frequently encountered then it is better to get rid of it before it actually overcomes us. There are simple ways by which you can overcome tiredness without any medicine. I am sure that you will feel energized and active after following these tips.

Don’t skip breakfast in the morning

Some of us try to skip breakfast in the morning. The reason may be that we don’t have time to take breakfast or don’t feel like taking it. If so then it is time that you think seriously about taking your breakfast. Breakfast will increase the metabolism in your body thus keeping it active all through the day. Try to add yogurt, cheese and bread in your breakfast. This will help you to keep energized and active in the morning.

Drink lots of water

Try to take in as much water as you can in a day. You feel tired when your body gets dehydrated due to insufficient amount of water in your body. By taking in ample amount of water you can avoid dehydration. Try to avoid coffee or tea and replace those with mineral water and fruit juices. If you want to have tea they try green tea instead of the normal one. Banana also helps to get back your energy when you feel tired. If these are taken regularly then we can feel the change in our body within few days.

Take sufficient amount of rest

Taking rest is the best way to overcome tiredness. Often tiredness happens when ample amount of rest is not given to the body. The best way to take rest is to get a good sound sleep. Sleeping helps to regenerate our body cells and be active. The ideal number of hours of sleep required by our body is around 8 hours per day. This helps to rejuvenate our body. If you feel that you cannot fall asleep easily then try to take bath in warm water before going to sleep. This will relax your body and mind and thus helps to have a good and sound sleep.

Try to change your mood when you feel tired

If you really feel that you are tired then try to change your mood by listening to good music. If you have really good interest in dance you can also add some dance steps along with the music. This will surely get rid of tiredness as it is the mind that gets tired easily than the body. Your mind will become relaxed and calm.

Avoid stress taking control of you

Stress can often take out the energy out of your body. Do not allow your vital energy to be sapped by stress that not only makes you tired but also affects the normal functioning of the whole body. It is difficult to avoid stress in present day situation but this can be avoided by changing the mood and interacting with good people to calm your mind. In case of stressful situation, try to forget about it and enjoy your life by indulging yourself in good things around you.

If you can follow the above mentioned steps then I am sure that you would be able to overcome tiredness and lead a healthy life.

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