Asthma: Causes,Symptoms and Treatment

What is Asthma?

Asthma is a condition where air passage in lungs gets inflamed and thus results in improper breathing, chest congestion, inflammation, coughing, etc. Asthma may be mild, moderate or severe, depending upon the frequency of the inflammation of the air path. Today, 10 out of every 110 people are suffering from this chronic condition. Children are more prone of getting asthma than adults. Person with no family history of asthma can also suffer from it.

Exercise: Type, Extent, Merits and Demerits

Exercise is a physical activity which helps an individual for maintaining is ideal weight and to remain in good health. Depending on age and overall physical condition, exercise plays a very important role in the management program of diabetes. There are several good reasons why regular physical activity may be helpful. They are as follows:

Amniotic Fluid Analysis

What is an amniotic fluid?

The fluid surrounding the fetus in the amniotic sac is Amniotic fluid. It is derived from maternal plasma in early pregnancy. The fluid volume increases as the baby grows in size.

Biomaterials in medicine

What are biomaterials?

Biomaterials are the basis for the construction of all artificial organs, whether they are constructed from totally synthetic materials or fabricated from specially treated natural tissues. The term biomaterials was defined as

“Any substance or combination of substances, synthetic or natural in origin, which can be used for any period of time as whole or a part of system which treats, augments or replaces any tissue, organ or function of the body.”


What is pentosuria?

Excretion of pentoses in urine is called pentosuria. The presence of pentose in urine was first described by Salkowski and Jastrowitz in 1892. This condition appears to be harmless to health. It is found exclusively in Jews and causes no decrease in life expectancy.


Definition of Fructosuria

Excretion of fructose in urine is called as Fructosuria.

Dietary sources

1. Fruit juices and honey
2. Table sugar or sucrose

Biomedical importance

1. Fructose is easily metabolized and is a good source of energy.
2. Seminal fluid is rich in fructose.
3. Excess dietary fructose is harmful and lead to increased synthesis of triglycerides.

Donate your Eyes to help someone see

Why should we donate our eyes?

There are currently an estimated 15 million blind people in our country. Of these about 6.8 million suffer from corneal blindness with vision less than 6/60 in at least one eye. If the present trend continues, it is expected that the number of corneal blind individuals in India will increase to 8.4 million in 2010 and 10.6 million by 2020.

Erythroblastosis Foetalis

Erythroblastosis Foetalis also called as hemolytic disease of the new born is a condition that develops in a fetus, when the IgG molecules (one of the five main types of the antibodies) that have been produced by the mother and have passed through the placenta include ones which attack the red blood cells (RBC) in the fetal circulation.


Galactosemia is an inherited disorder in which there is inability to convert galactose to glucose in normal manner.

Role of Calcium in Human body

Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the human body. It is a soft grey alkaline earth metal, and is the fifth most abundant element by mass in the Earth's crust. Calcium is also the fifth most abundant dissolved ion in seawater by both molarity and mass, after sodium, chloride, magnesium and sulfate.

Effects of Alcohol in the human body

Alcohol consumption is increasing day by day throughout the world. The main constituent present in alcoholic drink is nothing but ethyl alcohol. In Latin there is a term called “Invinoveritus” which means “in wine there is
truth” i.e. only after drinking we can see the original character of a person. It is easily absorbed and no digestion is needed. About 60% of alcohol taken on empty stomach is absorbed in half an hour and 90% in 1 hour. Alcohol mixes with the blood and is detected within 2 to 3 minutes of swallowing few sips of whisky or beer.

Diabetes Insipidus

This is a rare chronic disease in which the patient passes large quantities of pale dilute urine which is free from sugar and albumin. In some cases there are no discoverable causes and the condition may apparently be a hereditary disorder which usually affects men through several generations.

Things to remember for a Diabetic Patient

The following are the important points that a diabetic patient has to keep in mind in order to face any situation.

1. Tendency for diabetes is more in individuals who come from ‘diabetic stock’.

2. Treatment of diabetes is life-long and a good understanding between the diabetic and doctor is essential.

3. Whenever the individual has to consult a new doctor he must mention about his diabetes and the drugs he is taking so as to enable the doctor to understand his disease and to give proper medicine.

What is Diabetic Coma?

Coma is a medical emergency or a state of unconsciousness calling for immediate evaluation to determine its cause. It is only when sugar in blood is being used properly that fat can also be oxidized or burnt to provide heat and energy; when fat cannot be utilized a condition called acidosis develops and when this is present to a serious extent it affects the nervous system and causes diabetic coma.

Are you a Obese person?

A person is said to be obese if his/her Body Mass Index is greater than 30. It can be calculated by dividing ones weight in Kilograms by Height in meters²

AIDS - Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome

Discovery of AIDS

Homosexual men with symptoms of a disease that now are considered typical of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were first described in Los Angeles and New York in the year 1981. The men presented with an unusual type of lung infection called Pneumocystis carinii (now known as Pneumocystis jiroveci) pneumonia (PCP) and rare skin tumors called Kaposi's sarcoma.

Hiccups - Causes and Home remedies

What is hiccups?

Hiccup is a condition that is experienced by every human being. The sound ’hic’ comes from the opening and closing of the mucous membrane which attached to the larynx. The diaphragm that separates the chest from abdomen moves up and down and facilitates breathing. Any obstruction of this process leads to the formation of the Hic sound that starts appearing from the mouth. This is called hiccup.

Depression - Causes and Remedies

What is depression?

Depression is defined as a state of mind when people tend to get upset or tensed to such an extent that it starts affecting their daily life and activities. Patient suffering from depression loose the charm in life, lack a peaceful life, feel unable in doing daily chores, feel frustrated and utterly depressed and sad. Today, the kind of life people are living, the kind of work pressure in the IT world and food habit all lead to nothing but severe disease conditions, and depression is one of them.

Insomnia - A sleep disorder

What is Insomnia?

A sleep disorder that is experienced by a majority of old people is called as insomnia. Insomniac person losses their sleep or have less sleep at night. People who have lots of worries, and improper diet experience an insufficient sleep at night. Sleeplessness can be cured by effective simple methods just by bringing little changes in life style. Stress is the main root cause of insomnia.

Prickly heat:Causes, Symptoms and Remedies

What is Prickly Heat?

Prickly heat is an irritating and painful condition. Prickly heat is also known as prickly heat rash and is caused when sweat accumulates in certain parts of our body and results in a small red bumps on the skin. These red bumps are irritating and cause severe itching in the body. Prickly heat mostly affects the back, underarms, near waist area, and chest. Prickly heat may attack people of all ages. Small children are more affected with this disease as sweat in their body does not dry soon and easily. They feel great discomfort and pain during the prickly heat rashes. However, it is harmless and do not cause any other skin disease.

Foodborne Illnesses - Prevention, Diagnosis and Treament

Prevention of foodborne illnesses

Foodborne illnesses can be prevented through proper cooking or processing of food, which kills bacteria. In addition, since the bacteria multiply rapidly between 40°F and 140°F, food must be kept out of this temperature range.

Foodborne Illnesses - Causes, Symptoms and Complications

What are foodborne illnesses?

Eating food or drinking beverages contaminated with bacteria, parasites, or viruses is the cause of foodborne illnesses. Harmful chemicals can also lead to foodborne illnesses if they consume contaminated food during harvesting or processing. Foodborne illnesses can cause a number of symptoms that range from an upset stomach to more serious symptoms, including diarrhea, fever, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and dehydration.


What are gallstones?

A small pebble-like substance that develop in the gallbladder is called gallstone. The gallbladder is located below the liver in the right upper abdomen. It is a small, pear-shaped sac that stores bile, a liquid that helps the body to digest fats.When the liquid stored in the gallbladder hardens it forms into pieces of materials called stones.

Composition of Bile

Bile is a golden yellow or greenish fluid poured into the digestive tract along with the pancreatic juice. This helps in the digestion and absorption of lipids. The contents of bile are:

1. Water

2. Cholesterol

3. Fats

4. Bile salts

5. Proteins

6. Bilirubin

Bile salts are nothing but sodium and potassium salts of bile acids conjugated either with glycine or taurine. They are needed for the solubilisation of fats. Bilirubin is the excretory product of bile and is the important bile pigment which is responsible for the yellowish-brown color of the faeces. If enormous amounts of bilirubin, bile salts and cholesterol are present it hardens and this forms gallstones.

Types of gallstones

1. Cholesterol stones

They are usually yellow-green and are the primary content is cholesterol, which is hardened. About 80 percent of gallstones are cholesterol stones.

2. Pigment stones

They are small and dark stones made only of bilirubin.

Size of gallstones

The size of the gallstone may be as small as a grain of sand or as large as a golf ball. The gallbladder can develop into

a. one large stone

b. hundreds of tiny stones

c. a combination of the two

Causes for the formation of gallstones

Stones develop in people with liver cirrhosis, biliary tract infections, or hereditary blood disorders because bilirubin is formed in large quantities in these conditions.

Factors that contribute to the formation of gallstones


Women are more prone to develop gallstones when compared to men. This is due to excess estrogen production due to pregnancy and hormone replacement therapy, which increases the cholesterol levels in bile and thus leads to gallstones.

Family history

Gallstones often develop in families as a genetic link.


Obese persons are more prone to get gallstones due to increased cholesterol levels.


A Diet high in fat and cholesterol and low in fiber can increase the risk of gallstones.


People who are above 60 are more likely to develop gallstones than younger people. The body tends to secrete more cholesterol into bile as the age increases.

Cholesterol-lowering drugs

Some drugs that are used to lower cholesterol levels in the blood may increase the amount of cholesterol secreted into bile thus increasing the risk of gallstone formation.


Diabetic individuals usually have high levels of fatty acids called triglycerides which may increase the risk of gallstones.

Symptoms of gallstones

Gallstones move from the gallbladder and lodge in any of the ducts such as hepatic duct, cystic duct and common bile duct and thus causes blockage of bile flow. A gallbladder attack may occur suddenly following a fatty meal due to this blockage particularly during night time.

1. Steady pain in the right upper abdomen.

2. Pain in the back between the shoulder blades

3. Pain under the right shoulder

4. Prolonged pain lasting for more than 5 hours

5. Nausea and vomiting

6. Fever

7. Yellowish color of the skin or white layer of the eyes

8. Clay-colored stools

Diagnosis of gallstones

1. Computerized tomography (CT) scan

2. Cholescintigraphy (HIDA scan)

Peptic Ulcer

What is a peptic ulcer?

A peptic ulcer is a small sore which occurs in the mucous membrane. Mucous membrane is the membrane lining hollow organs of the body such as stomach and duodenum. Any destruction to this lining causes peptic ulcer. The destruction is caused due to bacterial infection or by the long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs), like aspirin and ibuprofen. Cancerous tumors in the stomach or pancreas may also cause ulcers in a few cases.


What is appendicitis?

A painful swelling and infection of the appendix is called appendicitis.

What is appendix?

A fingerlike pouch attached to the large intestine and located in the lower right area of the abdomen is an appendix. The hollow space inside the appendix is called the appendiceal lumen via which the mucus created by the appendix travels and empties into the large intestine.

Lactose intolerance

What is lactose intolerance?

Lactose is the major sugar found in milk. The inability to digest significant amounts of lactose is called lactose intolerance.

Enzyme deficient

The enzyme lactase produced by the cells that line the small intestine is deficient. Lactase is responsible for the breakdown of the milk sugar into two simpler forms of sugar called glucose and galactose. This simple sugars are then absorbed into the bloodstream. If this enzyme is deficient lactose accumulates and thus leads to lactose intolerance.

Acute pancreatitis

What is pancreatitis?

Inflammation of the pancreas is called as pancreatitis. The pancreas is a large gland which is behind the stomach and close to the duodenum.

Chronic pancreatitis

What is chronic pancreatitis?

An inflammation of the pancreas that does not heal or improve and gets worser and worser leading to permanent damage of the pancreas is called as Chronic pancreatitis.


What is cirrhosis?

A clinical disease which affects the liver slowly and leads to a chronic injury. This is the end stage of liver disease. Healthy liver tissue is replaced with scar tissue and thus partially blocks the flow of blood through the liver. This scarring impairs some functions of the liver. They are as follows:

How Nicotine in Cigarette works - Quit Smoking

Cigarette smoking is very much prevalent all over the world. Smoker not only spoils himself but also pollutes the environment. Now what is the content which makes a cigarette? The main ingredient is Nicotine (C10H14N2), which is a naturally occurring liquid alkaloid. A cigarette contains 8 to 20 mg of nicotine depending on the brand. 1 mg of nicotine is absorbed when a person smokes one cigarette.

How Diabetes affects your eyes

Diabetes is one of the chronic disease known to mankind. It affects all the organs of the body. It affects the heart, liver, eyes, kidneys and the gastrointestinal tract. Let us see how it affects the eyes.

One of the most devastating microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus is diabetic retinopathy. The early stages are characterised by histopathological changes like loss of pericytes and basement membrane thickening.

Calculate and maintain your ideal body weight

A person can maintain his ideal body weight by calculating his BMI, i.e. body mass index. Body mass index is a number calculated from a person's weight and height.The formula for calculating BMI is as follows:

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